The Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, is a significant piece of legislation passed by the Parliament of India that led to the abrogation of Article 370 and the bifurcation of the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two separate Union Territories – Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh. The Act was introduced by the Home Minister of India, Amit Shah, and it received presidential assent on August 9, 2019.
Article 370 of the Indian Constitution granted special autonomy to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The Act effectively abrogated this article, thereby revoking the special status that Jammu and Kashmir had enjoyed.
The state of Jammu and Kashmir was reorganized into two separate Union Territories – Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh. A Union Territory has less autonomy compared to a full-fledged state, with the central government having more direct control.
The reorganization also involved changes in the boundaries of the two newly created Union Territories. Jammu & Kashmir retained its legislative assembly, while Ladakh did not have a legislative assembly.
Article 35A, which granted special rights and privileges to the residents of Jammu and Kashmir, was also repealed through this Act.
The move to abrogate Article 370 and reorganize the state was a historic and contentious decision that sparked a range of reactions and debates within India and internationally. Proponents argued that it would lead to greater integration of Jammu and Kashmir with the rest of India and promote development in the region, while critics expressed concerns about the constitutional implications and the impact on the special status and identity of the region.
The decision was accompanied by significant security measures in the region, including the deployment of additional troops and restrictions on communication and movement